Ferdinand II, raised by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose the religious uniform on his country. This made him very unpopular in Protestant Bohemia. Despite the public`s feelings, the additional insult to the rejection of Ferdinand, elected crown prince of Bohemia in 1617, triggered the Thirty Years` War in 1618, when his representatives were thrown out the window and seriously wounded. The so-called multiplication of Prague provoked an open revolt in Bohemia, which had powerful foreign allies. Ferdinand was angry at this calculated insult, but his intolerant policy in his own country had put him in a weak position. The Habsburg cause in the coming years seems to be suffering irreparable setbacks. The Protestant cause seemed to be heading for a quick final victory. The war was largely fought on German soil and reduced the country to desolation, as hordes of mercenaries who were not paid by their masters lived from the countryside. Rapine, looting and famines stormed the landscape as armies marched, looting towns, villages and farms as they marched. «We live like animals, eat bark and grass,» says a pathetic inscription in a family bible in a Swabian village. «No one could have imagined that such a thing would happen to us.
Many people say that there is no God… Venceslas Hollar recorded devastation in the war zone in the stings of the 1630s and hunger reached such a point in the Rhineland that there were cases of cannibalism. Horror became a way of life, and at the end of the war, mercenaries and their wives complained about the lack of their livelihoods. A series of peace agreements signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabruck and Munster. The treaties ended the Thirty Years` War (1618-1648) in the Holy Roman Empire and the 80-year war (1568-1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch Republic. The Westphalian region of northwestern Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years` War, one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. After the Protestant Reformation, these independent states were divided between Catholic and Protestant domination, which led to conflicts. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ended the war between Lutherans and German Catholics. Peace founded the principle of Cuius regio, eius religio («Whose realm, his religion»), which allowed the princes of the Holy Roman Empire to choose either the Lutheran or The Catholicism within the territories they controlled, ultimately confirming their independence over their states. Individuals, citizens or residents who did not want to stick to the election of a prince were given a period during which they could emigrate freely to different regions where their desired religion had been accepted. This contrasted with the way in which Spain and Portugal had asked the Pope to resolve a political issue, to pass on their contract of Tordesillas in 1494 after the travels of Christopher Columbus, essentially to divide the world. The emperor and pope`s claims of authority were clearly not at the centre of this procedure, so what new order emerged? In the spring of 1635, all Swedish resistance was over in southern Germany.