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Paris Agreement Cop21

The Paris Agreement [3] is an agreement within the UNFCCC (UNFCCC) on the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions, signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. [4] [5] Until February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC signed the agreement and 189 became parties to the agreement. [1] Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. Every five years, governments must report on their progress and plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris Agreement also requires developed countries to send $100 billion a year to developing countries starting in 2020, when the agreement enters into force. This amount will increase over time. It is an agreement with an «agenda for action» to implement accelerators to ensure more ambitious progress, going beyond binding commitments. The agreement recognises the role of non-stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognises that states have common but different responsibilities, i.e. depending on national capacities and different situations. The Paris Agreement has a «bottom-up» structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are «top-down» and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that states must implement.

[32] Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets. [33] Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. Only the processes governing reporting and verification of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly notable for the United States – in the absence of legal targets for reduction or funding, the agreement is considered an «executive agreement and not a treaty». Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not require further laws of Congress for it to enter into force. [33] For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries had to join, representing at least 55% of global emissions. The agreement was opened in April 2016 and was concluded in April 2017. After the head of a country decided to join the agreement, the approval of the national government or the adoption of a national law was required for that nation to participate officially. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. The goal is to increase countries` climate goals over time. To promote this situation, the agreement provides for two review processes of a five-year cycle each. .

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