Dowry is a common practice in many parts of the world, especially in South Asia and several countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Dowry is most common in countries where male hereditary laws are insufficient and patrilineal societies that expect women to live with or near their husband`s family.   An unusual exception to the use of dowry in South Asia is in Bhutan. The dowry system does not exist in Bhutan; Inheritance is matrilineal, and girls do not accept their father`s name at birth or their husband`s name at marriage. Rural land can be registered in the name of a woman. Women own businesses and polyandry and polygyny are socially accepted, with polygyny being more common. Sometimes a groom-to-be works in the bride`s family house to get the right to marry her.  A woman`s dowry was managed by her husband as part of the family patrimony. However, he had no say in their final decision; and legally, the dowry was to be kept separately, as it was expected to support the woman and her children. The wife was entitled to her dowry upon her husband`s death. If she died childless, her dowry went to her family, it was her father, if he was still alive, if not to her brothers. If she had sons, they would share it evenly. Her dowry was hersible only by her own children, not by her husband`s children of other women.
 MacDonell and Keith`s results resemble Witzel and differ from Tambiah; They cite the old Indian literature which indicates that bridal wealth was even paid in Brahma and Daiva marriages related to the Brahmanic (priestly) upper caste. Dowry was not uncommon when the girl suffered from a physical defect. Women`s property rights increased in ancient India, according to MacDonell and Keith, over the Epics era (200 BC – 700 AD).  Kane argues that ancient literature indicates that bridal wealth was paid only in the asura style of marriage, considered reprehensible and forbidden by Manu and other ancient Indian scribes. Lochtefeld proposes that the religious duties listed by Manu and others, such as «the bride are richly decorated to celebrate marriage,» were ceremonial clothing and jewelry accompanied by gifts that were their property, not property required or intended for the groom; Lochtefeld also finds that bridal jewelry is currently not considered dowry in the eyes of most people.  Stanley J. . .